Testosterone
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Low Testosterone: 9 Signs in Men

The normal values listed here-called a reference range-are just a guide. These ranges vary from lab to lab, and your lab may have a different range for what's normal. Your lab report should contain the range your lab uses. Also, your doctor will evaluate your results based on your health and other factors. This means that a value that falls outside the normal values listed here may still be normal for you or your lab.

While testosterone stimulates a man’s sex drive, it also aids in achieving and maintaining an erection. Testosterone alone doesn’t cause an erection, but it stimulates receptors in the brain to produce nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is a molecule that helps trigger a series of chemical reactions necessary for an erection to occur. When testosterone levels are too low, a man may have difficulty achieving an erection prior to sex or having spontaneous erections (for example, during sleep).

Once the first batches of testosterone were made available, soon after many other forms would be introduced and made ready for human use but there is something important you need to understand. All testosterone in a general sense is the same; it is the ester attached that gives it its own unique function regarding time release and duration of activity but by-in-large all exogenous testosterone is simply the same testosterone. We will explain as we go along and get into understanding half-lives. - Stronger Anti-Catabolic Protection: some hormones have a negative effect on muscle tissue and can promote body fat; most notable is the hormone cortisol. Testosterone can aid in blocking and reducing this negative hormone reaction ensuring your muscle tissue is protected and body fat is not accumulated.

- Increase Red Blood Cell Count: Testosterone can greatly increase your endurance; the higher the endurance will result in the ability to do more work, i.e. train. By this increase in red blood cells we are able to increase the amount of oxygen entering the blood which increases working capabilities and can lead to greater muscle tissue efficiency.

- Increased Protein Efficiency: By supplementing with testosterone we increase protein synthesis, thereby increasing the level and rate in-which we build muscle tissue or protect it in a calorie restricted diet. Further, we are able to maintain a higher level of protein storage in-part due to an increase in nitrogen production due to higher levels of testosterone. These are all positive attributes to supplemental or exogenous testosterone use and the same effects can be achieved regardless of the form of testosterone we use. While these are not the only positive traits these are the most fundamental to our process and essential to our goals revolving around testosterone use.

The original testosterone; Testosterone-Propionate is one of the most popularly used forms the world over. This type of testosterone is defined by the fast-acting short ester it has attached known as the Propionate ester. The results and effects caused by this testosterone will largely be identical to all other forms but it is in the half-life it possesses where it differs to the highest degree. Testosterone-Propionate carries with it a half-life of approximately 48 hours; due to this short half-life most users will need to administer the hormone quite frequently; most performance enhancing athletes will inject this testosterone on an every other day schedule in order to maintain stable blood levels.What is Testosterone?

Theres no doubt about it; Testosterone-Propionate while a very simple hormonal compound is very effective and a more than solid choice in testosterone for most any athlete. Even so, some users will find this particular form difficult to use; some, the majority will not. Some individuals will find they are very sensitive to the Propionate ester and will find they experience a level of discomfort from the medication. If you fall into this category all hope is not lost; those who experience degrees of pain from Testosterone-Propionate in most all cases will not experience it from other common forms.

Testosterone-Enanthate is a pure testosterone with a slow-acting long ester attached and is a testosterone of high popularity. Like the Propionate version it is one of the most common forms used the world over by performance enhancing athletes. As for the functional properties of Testosterone-Enanthate, the same exact results will generally be obtained in comparison to the Propionate version assuming doses are similar. Virtually identical in almost every way to Testosterone-Enanthate, Testosterone-Cypionate is another slow-acting long ester testosterone of high popularity. Absolutely everything that can be said of Testosterone-Enanthate can be said of Testosterone-Cypionate with one minor difference. While generally structurally the same as the Enanthate ester, Test-Cyp or simply Cyp as its commonly known possesses a half-life of approximately 24 hours longer. The very slightly longer half-life is of negligible mention when we consider the total half-life time span, so much so that injection frequency schedules will be the same with Cypionate as they were with Enanthate.

There is however a more or less urban legend regarding Testosterone-Cypionate; for one reason or another this legend has really taken hold in the United States. The common story goes and is believed by many that Testosterone-Cypionate is stronger than Testosterone-Enanthate; the truth is thats a lie. You may absolutely find a more powerful Cyp if youre basing your experience on underground versions but as Human Grade pharmaceutical testosterone goes both Test-E and Cyp are virtually twins and this includes the kick they provide. Sustanon-250 is not a testosterone in of itself but a mixture of four different testosterones. Like all testosterone, the four various forms mixed together here are simply testosterone; in that there is no difference. However, each form mixed to comprise Sustanon-250 has a different ester attached to it thereby giving a slow steady release of testosterone for an extended amount of time. The composition of Sustanon-250 is as follows:

Developed by Organon, the original idea behind Sustanon-250 was to provide a testosterone form well-suited for hormone replacement therapy that would only needed to be administered once every few weeks and for all intense purposes the idea was a success. For the performance enhancing athlete Sustanon-250 can be a fine choice but the idea of injecting only once or twice a month is not applicable here. As a performance enhancer this testosterone like all forms will need to be administered on a more frequent basis. This mixture carries with it two fast, short esters, Propionate and Pheylpropionate, a longer more moderate ester Isocaproate and the very slow and long Decanoate ester. In order to keep testosterone levels stable and at their peak most athletes will inject Sustanon-250 at a minimum of every 3 days and more commonly every other day for optimal results.

What is Testosterone?

- Blood Pressure & Cholesterol: Testosterone use can have a negative effect on both of these issues. Keep in mind, if you are already susceptible to either the chances of you being negatively affected will increase. If you already have issues you are highly advised to get them under control before you begin use; for the remainder of you there are things we can do to prevent them from happening. As with so many things regarding anabolic androgenic steroid use, diet and nutritional intake is of the utmost importance. Supplementing with healthy Omega Fatty Acids in many cases can eliminate these side-effects from occurring. For the individual who undergoes hormone replacement therapy your doctor will determine your appropriate dose but for the athlete looking for a boost this dose will always be a great deal higher. There is no question, a mere 250mg per week of testosterone can provide a fantastic edge but in most circles 500mg per week is considered the gold standard for optimal results. Yes, doses can range much higher than 500mg per week; it is not uncommon for many athletes to use as much as 1,000mg per week and while less common but certainly not rare even as high as 1,500mg per week. It is important to note, there is a risk to reward ratio highly in effect as it pertains the our testosterone use; the higher the dose the potential for a higher reward but the higher the dose the greater increase of risk in-terms of negative side-effects and risk to our overall health. Most all beginners are advised to never go beyond 500mg per week and many veteran users will find this is all they ever need. If you do desire to chance a higher dose that is a call only you can make but understand the increase in risk is very real.

As for cycles, in this instance were referring to the duration of use, a common minimum length of time is 8 weeks, with 12 weeks being far more optimal for quality results. While a majority of veterans will use at minimum for 16 weeks, although not as common many will use for far extended periods of time; again, greatly increasing the risk to reward ratio. For most athletes, regardless of their level of experience with testosterone use, cycles of 12 weeks to 16 weeks in length will be their best bet and best suited for their long-term overall health.

Testosterone belongs to a class of male hormones called androgens, which are sometimes called steroids or anabolic steroids. In men, testosterone is produced mainly in the testes, with a small amount made in the adrenal glands. The brain's hypothalamus and pituitary gland control testosterone production. The hypothalamus instructs the pituitary gland on how much testosterone to produce, and the pituitary gland passes the message on to the testes. These communications happen through chemicals and hormones in the bloodstream.

Androgen (testosterone) deficiency

For people who are worried about low or high testosterone, a doctor may perform a blood test to measure the amount of the hormone in the patient's blood. When doctors find low-T, they may prescribe testosterone therapy, in which the patient takes an artificial version of the hormone. This is available in the following forms: a gel to be applied to the upper arms, shoulders or abdomen daily; a skin patch put on the body or scrotum twice a day; a solution applied to the armpit; injections every two or three weeks; a patch put on the gums twice a day; or implants that last four to six months.

Rachael has been with Live Science since 2010. She has a masters degree in journalism from New York University's Science, Health and Environmental Reporting Program. She also holds a Bachelor of Science in molecular biology and a Master of Science in biology from the University of California, San Diego. The test described in this article measures the total amount of testosterone in the blood. Much of the testosterone in the blood is bound to a protein called sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Another blood test can measure the "free" testosterone. However, this type of test is often not very accurate. Testosterone levels generally peak during adolescence and early adulthood. As you get older, your testosterone level gradually declines — typically about 1 percent a year after age 30 or 40. It is important to determine in older men if a low testosterone level is simply due to the decline of normal aging or if it is due to a disease (hypogonadism).

Hypogonadism is a disease in which the body is unable to produce normal amounts of testosterone due to a problem with the testicles or with the pituitary gland that controls the testicles. Testosterone replacement therapy can improve the signs and symptoms of low testosterone in these men. Doctors may prescribe testosterone as injections, pellets, patches or gels. Some of these signs and symptoms can be caused by various underlying factors, including medication side effects, obstructive sleep apnea, thyroid problems, diabetes and depression. It's also possible that these conditions may be the cause of low testosterone levels, and treatment of these problems may cause testosterone levels to rise. A blood test is the only way to diagnose a low testosterone level. 1029127) showed that lack of sleep can greatly reduce a healthy young man’s testosterone levels. That effect is clear after only one week of reduced sleep. Testosterone levels were particularly low between 2 and 10 p.m. on sleep-restricted days. Study participants also reported a decreased sense of wellbeing as their blood testosterone levels dropped.

Testosterone